Epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury (PERFORM-AKI) Study


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a condition where the kidneys are damaged, and their function reduced. This can lead to a build-up of fluid in the body, decreased urine output and an increase in toxins in the blood. AKI may be short-term, with people recovering the function of their kidneys. In other people, the disease progresses, and mortality rates can be as high as 45%.

In adults who are admitted to hospital, up to 20% will be diagnosed with AKI as the primary reason for being admitted. Research from both Australia and the US have shown the rate of AKI to have increased greatly over the past 10 years, and that this trend will continue to rise. With significant impacts on people’s quality of life, AKI is an increasing global healthcare issue.

Most research into the incidence of AKI is from within the intensive care unit (ICU). However, the rate of AKI diagnosed outside the ICU is much larger. This can be due to physical injury to the kidneys, kidney stones, infection of the kidneys, damage caused by a medication, or dehydration. Despite this, there is limited research regarding people diagnosed with AKI in the non-ICU setting. The PERFORM-AKI study will bridge this gap in research and provide unique insights into the burden of AKI outside the ICU.


To describe and identify risk factors of people who are diagnosed with AKI outside the ICU setting, along with their outcomes.

This study will generate high-quality data to assist clinicians in management of this patient population.

Research Methodology

This is a multi-centre, prospective study. Five kidney services within New South Wales, Australia are involved in collecting data between January 2021 to December 2023. Participants aged 18 years or older who have been diagnosed with AKI, outside the ICU setting, can take part. Data will be collected from participants medical records, including incidence, risk factors, treatments, and clinical outcomes. Real-time data will be collected to aid understanding of the clinician’s management of patients at the time they are diagnosed with AKI.

Current Status

Governance approval has been obtained for all participating kidney services. Each kidney service is actively collecting data.


The project is in partnership with Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Prince of Wales Hospital, Ryde Hospital, Canterbury Hospital and Sydney Adventist Hospital.